The internal pressure tends to change the section of the tube. Anderson Bridge is used to measure: a) L b) C c) V d) I. The signals given by a transducer may be nonlinear in nature or may contain noise. Bellows, Diaphragms and Bourdon Tubes Mechanical pressure-sensing elements include the bellows, the diaphragm, and the bourdon tube. d) Bourdon tube U = Elastic strain energy. calculating force. If unrestrained, the natural elastic properties of the element will produce a motion proportional to the applied pressure. Multiple choice questions . d) (1.08 F )/(E b t2) – To be an energy-dissipating effect, a device must exert a force opposite to the velocity; power is always negative when the force and velocity have opposite directions. Download our mobile app and study on-the-go. There are three types of Bourdon elements and they are: Some of the common elastic/mechanical types are: Bourdon Tubes Since total energy remains constant 0 or ( ) 0 dE d TU dt dt 1 ()2 2 T m x Figure 7.4 : Spring Force – Deflection Diagram The potential energy of the system consists of two points : (a) loss/gain in PE of mass, and (b) strain energy of spring. However, many sensors produce signals of the order of milli volts. Load cells are primary transducers. If yes, how much. 11.6.3 Internal Forces. (ii.) Operational amplifiers (op-amp) are widely used for amplification of input signals. Consider an infinitesimal element du at x = u. In the amplification stage both the measured signal & the noise are amplified. gives a schematic representation of the modulation/demodulation process. Mechanical Engineering MCQ questions and answers for an engineering student to practice, GATE exam, interview, competitive examination and entrance exam. You'll get subjects, question papers, their solution, syllabus - All in one app. Which of the following arrangements are used in load cells? a) Large weights only a) True View Answer, 5. Most mechanical instruments produce an output signal in the analog form. The spoken work is first converted into digital form by using a technique called Pulse Mode Modulation for transmission over telephone lines & then converted back into analog form at the receiving end. B)the units used to measure price and the units used to measure quantity. In Imperial units, stiffness is typically measured in pounds(lbs) per inch.. Generally speaking, deflections (or motions) of an infinitesimal element (which is viewed as a point) in an elastic body can occur along multiple DOF (maximum of six DOF at a point). View Answer, 9. a) Force to strain View Answer. The components are active and passive components, sensors, transducers, transmitters, receivers, modules (WiFi, Bluetooth, GSM, RFID, GPS), and so on. The internal force is the elastic force acting on the elastic strip which attempts to make the strip contract to the smallest possible size. Elastic type pressure gauges are also used for pressure measurement up to 700 MPa. c) Force to voltage The original signal which is not mixed with the carrier is known as pure signal and the signal mixed with the carrier is called mixed signal. To practice all areas of Instrumentation Transducers, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers. This means that the signal varies with time in a smooth & uniform manner without discontinuity. For these processes the transducer signal is superimposed on a high frequency wave form called carrier in such a way that it is impossible later to recover & display the original signal. As the name "spring element" suggests, the steel is slightly deformed under load, but then returns to its starting position, responding elastically to every load. Pointer, P, was used to read the scale. Find answer to specific questions by searching them here. If a metal piece is subjected to a tensile stress, the metal length will increase and thus will increase the electrical … The SI unit applied to elasticity is the pascal (Pa), which is used to measure the modulus of deformation and elastic limit. These noise signals may occur at the detector/transducer stage or the signal processing stage of the instrument. grounding can be of two types. d) None of the mentioned Consider, for example, a situation is in which a periodic measurement with frequency fm is being measured with an instrument as shown in the figure. The unit of measurement for force is the newton, symbolized by the letter N and named in honor of the English physicist Isaac Newton. – A damper element is used to model a device designed into a system (e.g., automotive shock absorbers) or for unavoidable parasitic effects (e.g., air drag). Tantalum also is used for highly corrosive, high temperature applications. When this data in the analog form is required to be fed to modern computer based data handling and control systems it is necessary to convert this data in discrete steps called bits. Force is measured using a force meter. Many force transducers employ simple elastic elements or a combination of elements, such as pillars, beams and rings, in assembled constructions. c) Both tensile and compressive strain gauges Work measurement has been defined by British Standard Institution as, “The application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance”.This time is called standard or allowed time. For low differential pressure measurement Liquid Column Manometers are used. b) Small weights only Elastic pressure sensors use an elastic element to measure pressure. The paper presents results of research on hydraulic automotive shock absorbers. Elastic pressure elements or mechanical type of transducers are used for measurement of very high pressures up to about 700MN/m^2. A period of rapid population growth between a preindustrial, stable population characterized by high birth and death rates and a later, modern, stable population marked by low fertility and mortality is known as High sensitivity and slow response if they are stiff b. The process of superimposition of the original signal on the carrier is shown as modulation while the subsequent process of recovering the original signal is called demodulation. View Answer, 3. a) Used for measuring small forces View Answer, 6. Conversion is the context of measuring instruments refers to conversion from analog to digital output or vice versa converter. a) Large weight A period of rapid population growth between a preindustrial, stable population characterized by high birth and death rates and a later, modern, stable population marked by low fertility and mortality is known as Thus before sending these signals to the system it is essential to remove the noise, non linearity associated with the raw output from a sensor or a transducer. Helical type. A strain gauge rosette is a term for an arrangement of two or more strain gauges that are positioned closely to measure strains along different directions of the component under evaluation. This process mainly includes a sensing element to sense the i… Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Weights were added to the pan to apply forces to the spring. In a capacitance-type pressure sensor, a high-frequency, high-voltage oscillator is used to charge the sensing electrode elements. b) Force is a vector quantity Within an electronic load cell, the gravitational force on the body being measured is applied to an elastic element. b) (F R)/(E b t2) Micromachined force or tactile sensors using nickel–chromium piezoresistors with k = 5.2 are presented in [10]. These instruments are used for a wide range of tasks including measuring the power of an engine, measuring the grip strength of a person and studying combustion. This deflects according to the magnitude of the body mass. c) Capsule Diaphragm element can also be used for force measurement. Which of the following device can be used for force measurement? the unit of force is the dyne (the force exerted by one gram under the influence of gravity), and the unit of area is the square centimeter. Thus, activities are carried out by using signal conditioning devices and the process is termed as ‘signal conditioning’. Ballastic tests are used in magnetic measurements for the determination of: a) Flux density of the specimen b) B-H curve of the specimen c) Hysteresis loop of the specimen d) All the above. b) Bellows The SI unit applied to elasticity is the pascal (Pa), which is used to measure the modulus of deformation and elastic limit. The simplest type of load cell is a bending beam with a strain gauge. Quite often the signal from the sensor/transducer stage needs to be processed for smoothening, linearization, filtration or conversion from analog to digital form. add if forces are applied in the same direction, subtract if forces are applied in opposite directions. Rahul Kala, in On-Road Intelligent Vehicles, 2016. It is also needed to modify the amplitude (low/high) and form (analogue/digital) of the output signals into respective acceptable limits and form which will be suitable to the systems. These short objective type questions with answers are very important for Board exams as well as competitive exams. The system then needs an analog to digital converter to change the sensed data from analog to digital form. D)neither the units used to measure price nor the units used to measure quantity. There are three main types of pressure elements. What are the different elastic transducers used for the pressure measurement? d) None of the mentioned These extremely small changes can be acquired with strain gauges. Mechanical Engineering MCQ questions and answers especially for the Mechanical Engineer and who preparing for GATE Exam. Give two examples of periodic motion. From Figure 7.4 Spring force C type Work measurement has been defined by British Standard Institution as, “The application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance”.This time is called standard or allowed time. As shown in fig. a) Beams This low level input signals from sensors must be amplified to use them for further control action. It is relatively cheap and is commonly used for measuring the gauge pressure of both gaseous and liquid fluids. type of elastic force that occurs when matter is pulled or stretched. This set of Instrumentation Transducers Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on ” Force Measurement”. Fiber optic cable consists of outer core and inner cladding. Horizontal forces either stretch or compress the body that they are applied to according to the direction of the force … The tip is connected to a spring loaded link-work and a geared sector and pinion arrangement which amplifies the displacement of tip and converts into the deflection of the pointer. These elastic members are of many types and convert the pressure into mechanical displacement which is later converted into an electrical form using a secondary transducer. Which of the following is not a type of pressure sensing element? Force is a vector quantity—that is, it has both magnitude (size) and direction. Go ahead and login, it'll take only a minute. b) Small weight The shape of the elastic element used in load cells depends on a number of factors, including the range of force to be measured, dimensional limits, final performance, and production costs. Conversely in some situations where the data is received in the digital form it may be necessary to use a digital to analog converter to convert the signal into continuous uninterrupted output. a) Force is a scalar quantity a measure of the force of gravity on an object. b) False Force application causes deformation or deflection on these elastic elements wherein the movement is then sensed by the strain gauge. Low sensitivity and fast response if they are stiff c. Low sensitivity and slow response if they are stiff d. None of the above . In this case the grounding process does not involve earth at all. We used two types of capacitive force sensors with different flexure stiffness (approximately 180 and 800 newton [N] m −1), which can measure force up to 160 and 2,000 μN, respectively. View Answer, 7. You must be logged in to read the answer. weight. Force is everywhere and it comes in a variety of sizes, directions, and type. Learn Force definition, unit & types of Force with solved examples. An elastic-type pressure gauge is a type of pressure gauge that measures the pressure by balancing the pressure of the fluid with the force of deformation of an elastic solid. Bourdon tube (ii.) Multiple-Choice Questions 1. C)the units used to measure price but not the units used to measure quantity. a) Tensile strain gauges PakMcqs is the Pakistan's largest Mcqs website, where you can find Mcqs of all subjects. d) None of the mentioned Data is transmitted in the form of light.It is used for measuring displacement,torsion. Elasticity is a physical property of a material whereby the material returns to its original shape after having been stretched out or altered by force. During a measurement, weight acts on the load cell’s metal spring element and causes elastic deformation.. One dyne per square centimeter is one hundred-thousandth (10−5) of a pascal. If unrestrained, the natural elastic properties of the element will produce a motion proportional to the applied pressure. In a capacitance-type pressure sensor, a high-frequency, high-voltage oscillator is used to charge the sensing electrode elements. c) Both large and small weights Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Instrumentation Transducers. Although forces cannot be seen directly, their effects can be observed and measured. d) Slowly moving weights The measured pressure pushes on an elastic element and the resulting deformation enables production of a signal proportional to the pressure. The signals reaching the indicator/recorder stage thus have a distorted form in which the high frequency noise signals are superimposed on the measurand signal as shown in the figure. Alan S. Morris, Reza Langari, in Measurement and Instrumentation (Second Edition), 2016. For example, a point on a horizontal beam can undergo both a vertical displacement and a rotation relative to its undeformed axis. (i.) The sensor/transducer stage of the instrument produces a signal which is of the same form as the measured parameter but the instrument also picks up from surrounding noise signals with a higher frequency fn. 1. 100) What is fiber optic transducer? Elastic pressure elements or mechanical type of transducers are used for measurement of very high pressures up to about 700MN/m^2. If now, a low pass filter is introduced between the amplification and recording stages, the high frequency noise signals will be eliminated & only the correct low frequency signals corresponding to the measured will reach the presentation stage of the instrument. 101) Compare digital transducer with analog. The types of pressure sensors are differentiated according to the amount of differential pressure they are able to measure. momentum. View Answer, 10. This is the type of grounding employed for aircraft and space craft circuitry. A dynamometer is capable of measuring different kinds of force such as mechanical force and muscular force. The Bourdon tube (invented by Eugene Bourdon, 1808–84) ( Fig 3.10 ) and the diaphragm ( Fig 3.11 ) … The degree of linearity depends upon the quality of gauge from oval to circular, and this tends to straighten out the tube. A pupil used the apparatus shown in the diagram to investigate the relationship between the force applied and the extension produced in the spring by that force. d) None of the mentioned a measure of how much matter is in an object. Elastic elements used for measurement of force give a. Substances that display a high degree of elasticity are termed "elastic." In Imperial units, stiffness is typically measured in pounds(lbs) per inch.. Generally speaking, deflections (or motions) of an infinitesimal element (which is viewed as a point) in an elastic body can occur along multiple DOF (maximum of six DOF at a point). Piezoelectric load cell can be used for measurement of a. b) Force to displacement It's the best way to discover useful content. It is the process of eliminating unwanted components of a measurand while allowing desired components to pass. The instrument used to measure force is called a dynamometer. c) Used for measuring dynamic forces 15.6 Bourdon Tube. As a special case, silver diaphragms can be used to measure the pressure of chlorine, fluorine, and other halogens in their elemental state. To measure large force; measure several thousand “g” Characteristics depend upon temperature. the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion. 2. ... an elastic force that stretches or pulls on the molecules in matter. 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Arrangements are used for measuring displacement, torsion, beams and rings, in constructions. The molecules in matter respond to electrical or optical signals of outer core and inner cladding size ) and.. Tell the measurement taken with elastic tape, we have to tell whether the was... And stay updated with latest contests, videos, internships and jobs stage or the signal varies with in! With time in a smooth & uniform manner without discontinuity is also used force... Gauges are also used for force measurement element can also be used measuring! Of eliminating unwanted components of a measurand while allowing desired components to pass transducers for. The quality of gauge from oval to circular, and the Bourdon tube is termed as ‘ signal ’.