Compare the data in the graph for autumn 2008 and winter 2009. Describe the process of photolysis in photosynthesis. An ice-core record covering the last 400 000 years has been obtained from Vostok in the Antarctic. To test the effect of isoprene on a plant that does not normally produce it, leaves of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were treated with heat stress at 46°C and were supplied with isoprene in the airstream. The green region is not used, so green light is reflected and seen. Outline the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. Compare the effect of the two temperatures on the emission of isoprene. Describe the features of alveoli in human lungs that adapt them for efficient absorption of oxygen. Photosynthesis (2.9) IB Diploma Biology Essential Idea: Photosynthesis transforms light energy into chemical potential energy that can be used by organisms 2. Using a named example of a genetically modified crop, discuss the specific ethical issues of its use. Explain the evidence provided by the data in the bar chart for the hypothesis that isoprene improves plants’ tolerance to high temperatures. The sketch shows the relationship between the reaction rate and substrate concentration in the presence and the absence of a competitive inhibitor. As it has been shown that high triglyceride levels correlate to obesity, another study was undertaken with humans. The action spectrum indicates the overall rate of photosynthesis at each wavelength of light There is a strong correlation between the cumulative absorption spectra of all pigments and the action spectrum. The action spectrum indicates the overall rate of photosynthesis at each wavelength of light 2.9.S2 ​Design of experiments to investigate the effect of limiting factors on photosynthesis. Distinguish between competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibition of chemical reactions, giving an example of each. Starting from the concept of gene pool, explain briefly how populations of early vertebrates could have evolved into different groups. Photosynthesis Part 6 Action vs Absorption Spectrum IB Biology each photosynthetic pigment absorbs specific wavelengths of light Outline the relationship between activity and temperature from 21:00 to 03:00 in all of the mice. Draw a labelled diagram to show the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli. The world’s oceans can absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide. Discuss whether the results provide clear evidence of a difference in uptake. Their first months in marine waters are spent foraging and growing near the shore line. In anaerobic conditions, plants release energy by glycolysis. Suggest one reason why the results differ for single mice and group mice. Describe the processes that occur in the mitochondria of cells when oxygen is present. Suggest reasons for the differences in lipid content. A study of 600 adolescents in Sweden showed that milk consumption has a positive effect on height which shows continuous variation. 2.9.U3. an absorption spectrum shows the quantity of each wavelength of light absorbed by a specific pigment. (ii) Explain the relationship between the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll and action spectrum of photosynthesis for green plants. Outline the relationship between temperature and oxygen concentration in the body fluids in Laternula elliptica. Measurements of photosynthesis and isoprene emission were made during a 35-day-long drought stress (drought period) and 3 and 15 days after re-watering stressed plants  (recovery period). Explain the relationship between the action spectrum and the absorption spectrum of photosynthetic pigments in green plants. As the O. nerka migrate upstream they no longer feed. Outline the effect of drought and of re-watering on the rate of photosynthesis. If the axis is "wavelength‟, then red should be shown as longer wavelength than blue. Explain the process of aerobic cell respiration after glycolysis has occurred. Action spectrum ratifies the pigments actually involved in the photosynthesis. Describe the isoprene emissions during the drought and recovery periods at 25°C. Each pigment absorbs specific wavelengths. Visible light has a range of wavelengths with violet the shortest wavelength and red the longest. Outline the effect of temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of enzymes. Explain the role of water in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. 2.9.1 Photosynthesis is the production of carbon compounds in cells using light energy. The solid line is the absorption spectrum; the dotted line is the action spectrum. Diffusion of carbon dioxide only occurs when there is a concentration gradient. The graph shows fork length frequency of juvenile O. nerka caught during their first months in marine waters in autumn 2008 and ocean age one O. nerka caught 15 months later during winter 2009 in the North Pacific Ocean. Both oxygen and carbon dioxide are soluble in water. In the medium surrounding the strands were motile, aerobicbacteria. Describe the relationship between genes, polypeptides and enzymes. Outline two factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis. Its body temperature is always similar to that of the environment around it. Describe four properties of water that are due to hydrogen bonding and polarity. The graph shows the range of uptake of sugars and the mean value. Biology (Topic 8 Respiration and Photosynthesis (HL)) Flashcards on IB Biology 8.2 Photosynthesis (HL), created by robertospacey on 12/03/2015. This study also showed a significant reduction in insulin sensitivity when participants were given fructose-sweetened drinks, but not when they were given glucose-sweetened drinks. the rate of photosynthesis of a plant at each wavelength: ... effect of temperature on photosynthesis? Some wavelengths of light, particularly in the blue and the yellow-orange range, result in a higher rate of photosynthesis than would be indicated by the absorption of those wavelengths by chlorophyll a.. This energy is then used to carry out photolysis, which supply substances that are needed to convert carbon dioxide into organic molecules such as glucose. The rate of photosynthesis was recorded as the carbon dioxide taken up per unit of leaf area per second. Describe a model that accounts for the ability of enzymes to catalyse reactions. It has been suggested that isoprene increases the tolerance of plants to high temperatures, which can cause a decrease in photosynthesis rates.Black poplar (Populus nigra) plants were subjected to two raised temperatures and  to drought. Explain the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Test 05 21 12 I ♥ IB Bio Part 2: Short Answer questions 21-26 (Points vary per question) 21. The part of the spectrum that is involved in photosynthesis is called the visible light spectrum. Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light most effectively and reflects green light more than other colors. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is currently 385 ppm (parts per million). 9. Visible light has a range of wavelengths with violet the shortest wavelength and red the longest. Action Spectrum of Elodea Pondweed in Rainbow coloured light ! Both display two main peaks – a larger peak at the blue region (~450 nm) and a smaller peak at the red region (~670 nm) Outline, with examples, the types of carbohydrate found in living organisms. The data show the recovery of photosynthesis at different isoprene concentrations 1 hour and 24 hours after the heat treatment. 6.1 Digestion and absorption. Explain how flowering is controlled in long-day and short-day plants. In 1881, the German plant physiologist T. W. Engelmann placed a filamentous green algaunder the microscope and illuminated it with a tiny spectrum of visible light. Visible light ranges from violet (400nm) the shortest wavelength to red (700nm) the longest. While chlorophyll a really likes the ends of spectrum, chlorophyll b likes lighter blue hues, and carotenoids tend to prefer only the colors dark green through violet. However, milk contains lactose which some people can digest but some cannot. One of the stages of aerobic respiration is called the link reaction. List mechanism for measuring the rate of photosynthesis​ Go to Internal Assessment Photosynthesis is the production of carbon compounds in cells using light energy. The percentage recovery compares the rate of photosynthesis before and after heat treatment. Identify the protein structures indicated by I and II. The oxygen concentrations of water near the gills and in the body fluids were measured, at a range of temperatures from 0°C to 9°C. ; Note– 1st visible product in photosynthesis is Starch.. Types of Photosynthesis. Deduce the pattern of carbon dioxide diffusion, between water and atmosphere, from 1988 to 2002. Lipid in O. nerka was measured to evaluate possible differences in energy status during their first 15 months at sea. Label the structures indicated on the X-ray of a human elbow. Temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration are possible limiting factors on the rate of photosynthesis; Applications: Changes to the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans and rock deposition due to photosynthesis; Skills: Drawing an absorption spectrum for chlorophyll and an action spectrum for photosynthesis The 1st is "Light Dependent Reactions" where light energy is trapped and converted into chemical energy (ATP). These were deduced from ratios of oxygen isotopes. Explain the light-independent processes of photosynthesis in plants. Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants trap light energy and use it to make carbohydrates. The graph shows concentration of PCBs in muscle lipids of O. nerka in relation to the distance of upstream migration. Isoprene is a chemical synthesized and emitted in large amounts by some plant species,  especially oak (Quercus sp.) (ii) Explain the relationship between the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll and action spectrum of photosynthesis for green plants. Calculate how many minutes the group mice are active between 21:00 and 00:00 at 8°C. Anabolic (formative) reaction, as food is formed. Describe how structure I is held together. The rate of photosynthesis will not be the same for every wavelength of light. Suggest one advantage for mice being nocturnal. In the graph below which line shows an action spectrum of photosynthesis? Draw a labelled diagram of a mitochondrion as seen in an electron micrograph. State the highest carbon dioxide concentration shown on the graph. Photosynthesis is a-Redox reaction. Outline the light dependent reaction. 10 terms. Outline the importance of enzymes to metabolic processes. The rate of photosynthesis is the least with green-yellow light (525 nm-625 nm). Explain this evidence. Atmospheric temperatures are also shown on the graph. Outline how the glucose produced as a result of photosynthesis is transported and stored in plants. The x-axis is commonly not understood conceptually. Oxygen is needed to complete aerobic cell respiration. Obesity (excessive weight) is recognized as a global health problem and has been correlated with a large number of health issues, diseases and deaths. b) Action Spectra. The graph below shows the carbon dioxide concentrations that were measured at different depths in the ice. Fosmidomycin inhibits the emission of isoprene without affecting photosynthesis. Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis in animals. Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationship between amino acids and polypeptides. The rate of photosynthesis was measured as uptake of  CO2 in μmol m–2 s–1. Absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a vs action spectrum of photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase has an essential role in aerobic cell respiration. An action spectrum is the rate of photosynthesis plotted against wavelength of light. Details. Photosynthesis is the production of carbon compounds in cells using light energy. It shows which wavelength of light is most effectively used during photosynthesis. State the concentration of PCBs in muscle lipids at 125 km from the ocean estimated by the correlation line. An action spectrum defines the relative effectiveness (per number of incident photons) of different wavelengths of light for light-requiring processes, such as photosynthesis, flowering, and phototropism (the bending of a plant toward light). Suggest possible conclusions for this experiment. The two are quite different and it is the latter; action spectrum that is important in determining photosynthesis. 2.9 Photosynthesis. ... IB Biology Unit 3 Chemistry of LIfe. Using all of the data, evaluate the evidence that suggests the consumption of large amounts of fructose poses a risk to human health. Biology >> 2.9 Photosynthesis; Shared Flashcard Set. Compare the results for the single mice at 15°C with those for the group mice at 15°C. Explain the effect of light intensity and temperature on the rate of photosynthesis. During aerobic cell respiration, oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced inside cells. Investigators carried out experiments to find the relationship between the energy used by mice (the metabolic rate) and their activity. The diagram below shows the structure of lactase. Suggest why heat treatment may reduce photosynthesis rates. Explain the process of photophosphorylation in chloroplasts. In a study, mice were divided into four groups. Suggest two reasons for the relationship. Explain how chemiosmosis assists in ATP production during oxidative phosphorylation. Describe two adaptations of the mitochondria, each related to its function. Action Spectra An action spectrum is the rate of a physiological activity plotted against wavelength of light. Photosynthesis and transpiration occur in leaves. The two – ito system was also discovered by action spectrum. Explain the relationship between the action spectrum and the absorption spectra of photosynthetic pigments in green plants. The graph shows the absorption spectrum for two types of chlorophyll. Photosynthetically active radiation, often abbreviated PAR, designates the spectral range (wave band) of solar radiation from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis.This spectral region corresponds more or less with the range of light visible to the human eye. Draw the action spectrum of photosynthesis and the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll on the axes below: 8. Draw a labelled diagram to show the structure of the plasma membrane. 8. The 2nd is "Light Independent Reactions" and ATP is used to bond together carbon dioxide and water to make glucose. 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